How to improve your Jump.
Volleyball is an Olympic team sport. It is an open skills sport meaning the athlete must adapt to constant change during the game or an single action.
Volleyball athletes need to use all motor skills:
Jumping is one important skill volleyball athletes use throughout the match, jumping is used in almost all technical moves, except for digging.
Jumping is used for:
Biomechans of Vertical Jumping
The vertical jump can be broken down into three phases; a preparatory (or down) phase, a propulsive (or up) phase and a flight phase (as shown in figure 1). The first two phases occur while the jumper is on the ground. Because the height reached by the jumper's center of gravity is determined by what the jumper does on the ground the two ground phases will be discussed in detail. The movements that occur during the vertical jump primarily involve movements of; the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder joints. Some movement occurs around the elbow joints, but this does not appear to be as important as that at the other joints, so just these four will be examined.
During the preparatory phase, the ankles dorsiflex, the knees and hips flex and the shoulders hyperextend. During the propulsive phase, the opposite motions occur at each joint: the ankles plantar flex, the knees and hips extend and the shoulders flex.
Also during this phase, the body is lowered, so its potential energy decreases. The segment immediately above the ankle joint is lowered, so its potential energy, relative to the joint, decreases. The contraction of the active ankle joint muscle group is eccentric. The ankle joint flexes dorsally, but the muscle contraction is eccentric, so the ankle plantar flexor muscles are the active group. The segment immediately above the knee joint is also lowered relative to the knee joint, so its potential energy, relative to the knee joint, decreases. The contraction of the active knee joint muscle group is eccentric. The Knee extensors is the active muscle group. The segment immediately above the hip joint is also lowered relative to the hip joint, so its potential energy, relative to the hip joint, decreases. The contraction of the active hip joint muscle group is eccentric; and the hip extensors are the active muscle group. The segment distal to the shoulder joint is raised, so its potential energy, relative to the shoulder joint, increases. The action of the active shoulder joint muscle group is concentric. Hyperextension occurs at the shoulder joint, so the shoulder extensors are the active muscle group. This whole section above would benefit from rewording as it is very repetitive, it would be worth grouping the areas that behave the same together to avoid the repetition in the report.
During the propulsive phase, the potential and kinetic energy’s of all of the active body segments increase. The contraction of the active muscles at each of the joints is concentric. The ankle plantar flexes, so the plantar flexors are active; the knee extends, so the knee extensors are active and the hip extends, so the hip extensors are active. Closer examination of the shoulder joint reveals that the arms initially move downwards relative to the shoulder joints and then move upwards. This slight decrease in potential energy is much smaller than the segment's large increase in kinetic energy, so positive work is done and the shoulder flexors contract concentrically.
At the end of the preparatory phase and the beginning of the propulsive phase, the body is rapidly accelerated upward. All of the joints involved also experience accelerations during this phase. Strength is required in the ankle plantar flexors, knee and hip extensors and shoulder flexors to perform a vertical jump well. Table 1 (3)
Figure 1: The three phases in standing vertical jump (4)
Power Training- Isotonic Method with Resistance
One classic method of power training is to attempt to move a weight as rapidly and forcefully as is possible, through the entire range of motion. Therefore, effective methods for developing power include; free weights and other equipment that can be moved quickly.
Isotonic training or training with resistance, is training where the muscles produce tension throughout the range of movement. The contraction of the muscle has two phases: firstly the concentric phase, or positive phase, where the muscle is shortened and produces tension; and secondly the eccentric phase, or negative phase, where the muscle is stretched and produces less tension (4).
Isotonic training improves strength and so the muscle will produce more tension to oppose resistance.
What is strength? Strength is a conditional skill that enables the muscle to oppose resistance.
Strength is divided into four categories:
What is the Plyometric Method?
Plyometric exercises are those that elicit the stretch-shortening cycle, or myotatic stretch reflex. These exercises load the muscle in a fast eccentric (lengthening) contraction, which is followed immediately by a concentric (shortening) contraction.
Plyometric training produces the following results:
Plyometric exercises can be categorized into two major groups that reflect their degree of impact on the neuromuscular system: low intensity and high intensity. Such exercises can be further divided into five levels of intensity. This classification can be used to plan effective alternation of training demands throughout the week.
Any plan to incorporate plyometric exercises into a training program should account for the following factors:
The intensity of plyometric exercises, the amount of tension created in the muscle, depends on the eccentric load of the exercise. This is normally determined by the height from which the exercise is performed.
Although plyometric exercises are fun, they demand a high level of concentration and are deceptively vigorous and taxing. The lack of discipline to wait for the right moment for each exercise can result in athletes performing high-impact exercises before they are ready. In such cases, the resulting injuries or physiological discomforts are not the fault of the plyometric exercises. Rather, they are result of the coach's or instructor's lack of knowledge and improper application. The five levels of intensity help coaches design a plan including appropriate that follow a consistent, steady, and orderly progression with appropriate rest intervals (1-8 min depends levels)(5).
Voelzke, et al. (2012), conducted a study comparing the effects of two combined training methods. Sixteen healthy volleyball players (elites) participated in this study. The training was conducted twice a week, with a total of 10 training sessions during the 5 weeks training program in addition to the regular volleyball training sessions (4-5 sessions per weeks; 120 min per sessions).
These two combined training programs were: EMS+P (electromyostimulation plus plyometrics) and resistance training + plyometrics (RT+P). The RT+P training resulted in significant improvements in Squat jump (+2.3% ), reach height (+0.4%) performance. the EMS+P training group showed significant increases in performance of countermovement jumps (+3.8%), drop jump (+6.4%), reach height (+1.6%), fifteen metre straight and lateral sprint (-3.8%). the results indicate that RT+P training is effective in improving jump performance and EMS+P training increases jump, speed and agility performance(2).
Adams et al. (1992),researched the effects of combined parallel squat and plyometric training and showed that this can produce improvements in vertical jump performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three training programs: squat, plyometric, and squat + plyometric increasing the vertical jump. Forty-eight subjects were divided equally into four groups: squat, plyometric, squat + plyometric, and control. The subjects trained two days a week for seven weeks (1 week to learn the technique and six weeks for training). The squat + plyometric group achieved a greater improvement than the squat or groups alone. The squat + plyometric group increased their vertical jump by 10.67cm, compared to 3.30cm for the squat group and 3.81cm for the plyometric group (1).
Tests to Check your Vertical Jumping Ability
Wall and metre: the athlete stands on tiptoes next to a wall and with a raised arm makes a mark on the wall as high as possible whilst remaining on the floor. The athlete then bends their knees and jumps as high as possible, again making a mark on the wall with one raised arm. The difference between the initial and final marks represent the index of elevation. For accuracy the test should be repeated 3 times and an average result taken.
Vertec: is one of the most common apparatus for measuring vertical jumping ability. It is the vertical jump-testing device of choice for many college and professional teams. It is a steel frame construction with horizontal rotating beams which are rotated out of the way by the hand to indicate the height reached. Take the standing height of the subject with one arm fully extended upward, then have the subject jump-up and touch the highest possible vane. The jump height is the difference between standing height and jumping height.
Jump Mat system: is an example of an electrical contact operated system. The Jump Mat is a 27 inch x 27 inch mat with a hand-held battery operated computer unit. The mat calculates vertical jump height by measuring the time that the feet are not in contact with the mat, and from this calculates explosive leg power. The hand-held computer displays height and hang time for 1 jump, average height plus ground time for 4 jumps, computes explosive leg power rating, times sprints and foot quickness .
Optical measurement system with bar: consists of a transmitting and receiving bar, and containing between LEDs. One bar contains the receptor and control unit, the other has the transmission electronics embedded. It is able to measure with 1/1000thof a second precision. It can measure all flight and ground-contact times while performing a sequence of jumps (5).
To improve vertical jumping exercises with resistance (weight) and plyometric exercises have been shown to be very effective.
The resistance training or isotonic training can be advisable to improve vertical jumping, because they will improve strength, especially with exercises like squats, deadlifts or weightlifting exercises, where the active muscle groups are in the legs. As discussed, plyometric exercises are another good way to improve vertical jumping, these exercises work within the stretched-shortened cycle; transforming muscle strength into explosive power (reactive strength).
A workout plan is shown in table 2 which aims to incorporate this knowledge and so works to improve vertical jumping. This example consists of two phases: strength phases (3 weeks plus 1 week rest) and strength + plyometric phase (3 weeks).
The strength phase is a full body routine with 2 exercises for the lower body and 2 exercises for the upper body and 1 exercise for the abdominal region;3 times within the weeks, with one day on and one day off.
All exercises have 3 series (sets) between 4 and 5 repetitions (Reps) , with 3-4 minutes of rest (rest min) between each series. The loads are 80% of 1RM (1-repetition maximum) for the 1st week and will be increased in the following weeks (82.5-85% of 1RM). The Range of Motion (RoM) is 0103, where 1second is the period of time where you are lifting the weight in the concentric phase and 3secondswhere you keep the weight in the eccentric phase, here you would work quickly in the concentric phase and slowly in the eccentric phase (Tables 2).
The Strength + Plyometric Phase is a full body routine with 2 exercises for the lower body, 1 exercise for the upper body and 1 exercise for the abdominal region; 3 times within the weeks, with one day on and one day off.
This phase is in super sets with 3 series (sets), 5+5 repetitions (reps), 4-5 minutes of rest (rest min), and with the weight you will need to lift. The loads increase in the following weeks. The Range of Motion (RoM) is 0102, where you will do the concentric phase quickly (1 second) and the eccentric phase slower (2 seconds)(Tables 3).
Jump workout Plan 7 weeks
Tables 2: Strength Phase + Rest Phase
Try our Program to improve your jump
3 Weeks Strength Phase + 1 Week Rest Phase
3 times for week (on-off-on-off-on-off-off)
Tables 3 Strength + Plyometric Phase
3 Weeks Strength + Plyometric Phase
3 times for week (on-off-on-off-on-off-off)
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This article was written by Mauro Ceccarini