THE HIGHNESS LEUCINE
Everybody, in the gym, have spoke just one time of protein intake to build mass, we know that proteins are most important part in a diet of a natural bodybuilder or in any diet.
Proteins are a macronutrient, like fat and carbohydrates, it produces 4 kcals of energy per gram; are formed from sub-unity called amino acids. The amino acids are like a small bricks that form a wall; they are divided in two groups, Essential amino acids and Non-essential amino acid.
Everybody see in the shops there are a lot of supplement of Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and Essential Amino Acid (EAA). The BCAA are Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine; while the EAA include all the Essential Amino Acid.
Normally theBCAA have a ratio of 2:1:1, so 2gr of Leucine, 1gr of Isoleucine and 1gr of Valine.
Leucine is one of the BCAA/EAA and it is the most important of them. Has been shown that leucine initiate the translational stage of protein synthesis; consume of Leucine helps to increase the muscle protein synthesis (Zhi Xia at all2). The initiation of mRNA translation is the major mechanism by which Leucine stimulates protein synthesis. (J.A.B Pedroso at all5)
Amino acids, especially Leucine, function not only as a substrate for newly synthesized protein, but also as a “trigger” (signalling molecule) for the initiation of protein synthesis (Columbus et al. 2014).
Leucine metabolism in the body can be divided into two steps. The first step is the reversible transamination of Leucine to form α-Ketoisocaproate (α-KIC), with the concomitant production of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). This reaction is catalyzed by branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase (BCAT), which is highly expressed in muscle tissue.
The second step of Leucine catabolism is the oxidation of α-KIC, it is catalyzed by Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD) located into the mitochondrion. The BCKD have low activity in skeletal muscles, but it is highly active in the liver, so in majority of α-KIC oxidation is the liver. Into the liver mitochondria the 90% of all α-KIC is oxidized to isovaleryl CoA (IVA-CoA), leading the formation of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) and the final metabolites acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA. Into the liver cytosol, the remaining α-KIC is oxidized to β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) by the enzyme α-KIC dioxygenase (KICD) (Nissen 1997). Subsequently, HMB, is eliminated by the kydneys or metabolized to HMG-CoA, which is the precursor for cholesterol synthesis.
About 80 % of Leucine is normally used for protein synthesis while the remainder is converted to α-KIC, and only a small proportion of Leucine (about 5 %) is eventually converted into HMB. The recommended dose of HMB is 3 g/day for adult humans. A 70-kg individual generates about 0.2–0.4 g HMB/day, depending on the Leucine content in the diet (Nissen 1997). Although HMB can also be found in nature, the quantities required to increase protein synthesis and to decrease proteolysis cannot be consumed within a normal diet (Gerlinger-Romero et al. 2011). To achieve HMB’s beneficial effects, 60 g of Leucine is required, but it is beyond the amount of a balanced diet (Zanchi et al. 2011).
We saw that the Leucine has a good anabolic effect in the skeletal muscles, and when is oxidized to HMB, his metabolite, with anticatabolic effect. So, the Leucine has two good effects in human body, anabolic effect, in case of bulk muscles, and anticatabolic, In case of cutting. But remember, in case of cutting is better supplying directly with HMB that with Leucine, because you need take 60 gr. of Leucine to produce a good amount of HMB, this amount is high in an normal diet (especially in cutting).
The dose of Leucine recommended is 0.05 gr/Kg, taken in one time at day or splinted during the day.
We see that the leucine is an amino acid and they are inside the protein, so they are food.
Now we show you all the food that has more Leucine
So, in other words Leucine promotes the hypertrophy with the diet, but remember the best way to hypertrophy is to do resistant exercises followed with a good diet.
To resume the effect of Leucine are:
Promote the protein synthesis of muscles;
Energy substrates for the muscles;
Through the HMB, his metabolite, reduce the proteolysis or catabolism of muscles
Other studies showed that a shaker with protein, maltodextrin and Leucine after 45 minutes from workout, trigger the insulin response into the plasma of 240% respect the 77% of normal shaker with protein and maltodextrin. In fact, the synergy action between Leucine and Insulin is the main reason that explains the anabolic effect of this amino acid.
The Leucine is present in most aliments especially in the protein food. The high amount of grams of Leucine present in the Protein Isolate normally is around 3g of Leucine in 25-30g of Protein Isolate.
But the dose can change depending on the kind of workout program and diet; can be from 2000-5000 mg per day.
Register on our Facebook group and put LIKE on my page to stay update about our articles or offers