The mechanism to develop the muscle hypertrophy
If you are reading this article is because you want to achieve a better body, You have come to the right source. Many people think the best way to keep up the muscles is by emulating the training methods of their favorite bodybuilders or from bodybuilding magazine. In part, bodybuilders have their physique due a genetic factor plus their workout but you cannot just follow their workout because you will end up frustrated to how stricter it is. Every programs are specific for only once or few peoples, so with this article I will give you all information to design your plan and understand all the factors that lead a great muscles development.
The muscle hypertrophy is the increase the volume of fibre of the muscle tissue, it is adaptation of biologic and physiologic systems and it is happen when the muscle's size increase. There two types of muscles hypertrophy:
Transient hypertrophy is the increased muscles size that develops during or after exercises. This result is from the fluid accumulation, called Edema, between the fibres muscles that come from the blood plasma. This effect is really short and after few hours the fluids return to the blood.
Chronic hypertrophy is mean the increase in muscle size that occurs with long term resistance training. This process change the structure in the muscle that can result from an increase in the size of single muscle fibers, fiber hypertrophy, or in the number of muscle fibers, fiber hyperplasia, or both.
Fiber hypertrophy, unfortunately the number of muscle fibers in each of a person’s muscles is established by birth. The muscle hypertrophy is the result of individual muscle fiber hypertrophy and their component so more myofibrils, more actin and myosin filaments, more sarcoplasm, more connective tissue.
The resistance training can increase the cross sectional area of muscle fiber; the fiber hypertrophy is caused by increased numbers of myofibrils, actin and myosin filaments, which would provide more cross- bridges for force production during contraction.
Fiber Hyperplasia, is the biological process that increase the volume of muscle fiber by number of fibers. Most of the studies about hyperplasia been placed on cats or rats, researchers are still uncertain about the role played by hyperplasia and individual fiber hypertrophy in increasing human size with resistance training. However some studies showed that the hyperplasia is possible in the humans.
The factors that involve the muscle hypertrophy are:
The mechanical tension is the primary factor that involve the hypertrophy. The tension you have through the resistance training is generally considered the most important factor in muscle development. During your workout the tension from lifting weights change the integrity of working muscles, this phenomenon is called mechanotransduction. The mechanotransduction is the process by which mechanical signal are converted into chemical activity, in other word the signal to involve the anabolic pathway. More muscle tension leads to greater anabolic stimulus, this is a classic adaptation.
Through the exercises there are three types of contractions or phase: concentric, eccentric and isometric. The concentric phase, or positive, when you lift a weight against the force of gravity, the muscle is in shorteness. The eccentric phase, or negative, when you lower the weight, the muscle is under tension in lengthening. The isometric contraction when you lift or produce force without movements (up or down).
The contraction during an eccentric phase increase the muscle damage and studies show that increase the anabolic process.
During the eccentric phase, that involve the lengthening of the muscle under tension, have an higher recrutement of fast-twitch fibers, because only few fibers are involved in the production of force during the eccentric phase. The result of this mechanism is an higher microtrauma that lead to a remodeling of the muscle tissue. As the result the eccentric contraction is more important than the concentric contraction regarding the growth response.
Everybody after an intense exercise session felt achy and sore, this phenomenon is called DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness), normally manifested 24hr after the intense training and the peak effect can be felt after 2-3 days. They are the cause of a muscle damage that generate microtrauma in both of the contractile proteins and surface membrane of the muscle that worked. This kind of soreness have indirect benefit on the muscles development. During the muscle damage, the microtrauma are repaired from our immune system (acute inflammatory response to infection); this actions help to regenerate the muscle tissue sending the immune cells in order to reduce the damage, increasing the production of the growth factors involved in muscle development.
This does not mean that the soreness is prerequisite to muscle development. The muscle and the immune system become very efficient in dealing with muscle damage due to an intense training. Differents kind of adaptations (physiologic and structural) take place to reduce the sensation of pain; so the more you train at high levels of intensity the better will be your resistance to muscle soreness. But the soreness does not have to be to high (you can’t sit down after a training, comb your hair etc..) because in this case you have exceeded your body abilities to repair damage muscle tissue which means that you are not growing!
The metabolic stress is a physiological process that during exercises is respond a low energy that produce by-products of metabolism called metabolite like as lactate, phosphate inorganic and ions of hydrogen, is been proved that this metabolic waste induce to muscle development. This waste products indirectly mediate cell signaling; this will create a water increase inside the muscles (cell swelling).
This process will increase the protein synthesis and at the same time decrease protein breakdown. Is still not clear why the cell swelling causes the anabolic effect but, differents theory, suggest that is a self-preservation mechanism. This amount of water inside the cells increase the pressure on the cell wall, this process is seen as a threat from the cell that, in response, will send anabolic signals that will initiate strength of their ultrastructure (adaptation).
The muscle need a chronic adaptation due to this factors (metabolic stress, muscle damage), if you don’t have a precise stimule across this factor, the muscle adaptation (hypertrophy) does not take place or, if it does, just partially. The workout programmation (short, medium and long term) give you the help to create the signal that will give you hypertrophic adaptation.
Now we will look into the practical part so that we can understand how to stimulate our muscle and reach a better hypertrophy state.
PERIODIZATION OF HYPERTROPHIC PHASE
The traditional periodization program include 3 phases:
-macrocycle: represent the entire training year but can vary from several months up to 4 year, is subdivided by mesocycles;
-mesocycle: last from weeks up to several months and is subdivided by microcycles;
-microcycle: goes from 1 to 4 weeks.
When you plan your workout you need considered several training variables are manipulated: intensity, volume, rest intervals, effort, tempo, frequency and exercises selection.
The term of intensity refers to the amount of weight lifted rather than the amount of effort put into the lift. The intensity is generally measured as a percentage of repetition maximum (RM). RM is the maximal amount of weight you can lift only one time and not more.
The repetitions can be classified into three ranges: low intensity from 1 to 5, moderate intensity from 6 to 12 and high intensity up to 15.
The best range to build muscles is between 6 to 12, approximately 65 to 85 percent 1RM. Moderate intensity (6 to 12) provide a mix of all factor that induce hypertrophy. What’s more, the tension is maintained for a sufficient time to enhance the potential for microtrauma and fatigability across all fibers. Also it generate a significant build up of metabolites that enhance the body’s anabolic environment.
The volume is determined by adding up the total number of repetitions performed in a training session.
The Set is the time you doing an amount of repetitions, the generally guideline suggested that 2 to 4 sets per exercises are optimal to increase build muscles.
It is the amount of time you take from the end of one set to the beginning of the next set. It could be short rest (30 second or less), moderate (1 to 2 minutes) and long (3 minutes to more). Long rest used in case of low intensity (1 to 5 repetitions); moderate rest used with moderate intensity (6 to 12 repetitions); short rest used for increase the metabolite accumulation.
The effort is the feel you have during the exercises. There is a valuation range that can be used to estimate the amount of fatigue during the exercises.
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale - Original
The next RPE Scale is made specific to understand how many repetitions you could do in each range of effort.
Tempo - T.U.T
Tempo or Time Under Tension (T.U.T.) is the speed with which you doing a repetition.
It is specific to the three types of contraction: concentric, eccentric and isometric.
Normally it is used with four number like this 1-0-2-0, the first number indicate the time (1 second) of concentric phase, 0 is means the isometric phase at the top, 2 is means the seconds you could do the eccentric phase, and the last 0 is means the isometric phase at the bottom.
Example with the barbell biceps curl, the concentric phase is when the hands with bar start lift, isometric phase at the top is when your hands are near your shoulders, the eccentric phase when the hands start go straight in down, the last isometric at the bottom is when the arm are completely straight.
Frequency are the weekly number of sessions that you will do. Generally three resistance training session per week are necessary to have a great muscle development, but a greater frequency can potentially increase more your muscle development.
Between every sessions our muscles, they need rest around 48 hours if on the next session work with same muscle group.
The exercises frequency has direct effect on total training volume, if the volume in each sessions remain constant more frequent workout increase weekly training, that in long time can induce the potential of overtraining.
The frequency is limited by how you structure your routine, you can train in full body routine, where in every sessions you train all your body, or in split routine which you perform multiple exercises for a given number of number of muscle groups in a sessions.
The exercises selection is the choice of exercises in your sessions, they are specific for you, about your body conformation, your fit level, your skills, your preference, your goals.
Varying exercises is essential to muscles development to work completely with all fibers of the muscle and in all of their range on motion.
The exercises are divided in two groups: multi joints exercises or compound are include all exercises require two or more joints to carry out the movement, like bench press or squat.
Single joints exercises or isolate are all exercises that require movement only with one joint, like triceps push down or biceps curl.
To make more clear what we told before, i will show you an example of hypertrophy session plan.
Four days a week per six weeks
Monday workout A
Squat: 3 sets per 6 repetitions, TUT 1010, rest between 1-2 minutes
Leg extension: 2 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Leg press: 3 sets per 15 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Bench press: 3 sets per 6 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest between 1-2 minutes
Dumbbells flies: 3 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Military press: 3 sets per 8 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Lateral raises: 2 sets per 10 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Triceps push down: 3 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute.
Tuesday workout B
Deadlift: 3 sets per 6 repetitions, TUT 1010, rest between 1-2 minutes
Pull down: 3 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Seated row: 3 sets per 10 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Reverse cables flies: 3 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Barbell biceps curl: 3 sets per 8 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Abdominal crunch: 3 sets per 20 repetitions, TUT 1010, rest 1 minute
Reverse crunch: 2 sets per 15 repetitions, TUT 10110, rest 1 minute
Wednesday rest day
Thursday workout C
Leg press: 3 sets per 10 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Lunges: 2 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Lying leg curl: 3 sets per 15 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Incline bench press: 3 sets per 10 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest between 1-2 minutes
Cable fly: 3 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Arnold press: 3 sets per 10 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Machine Lateral raises: 2 sets per 15 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Nosebreak: 3 sets per 8 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute.
Friday workout D
Pull up: 3 sets per 6 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest between 1-2 minutes
Dumbbells single arm row: 2 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Close grip pull down: 2 sets per 10 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
T-row: 3 sets per 10 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Preacher curl: 3 sets per 12 repetitions, TUT 1030, rest 1 minute
Plank : 2 sets per 30 seconds, rest 1 minute
Dumbbell side bend: 3 sets per 20 repetitions, TUT 1020, rest 1 minute
Saturday and Sunday rest day
The muscle hypertrophy is triggered from three important factors: mechanical tension, muscle damage and metabolic stress. The best range of repetitions to include all of these factors are from 6 to 12 repetitions. The rest between each exercises can be from 30 sec to 2 minutes, depends of range of repetitions; train three times a week have great hypertrophy response but increase the frequency of them can improve the muscle development. The choice of exercise is specific of your goal and your body composition, remember to work which each muscles in all their fibres and range of motion.
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